WarnerPatch
Dr Melissa Berthelot
startup magazine logo
CRL with Jose, Melissa and Ran
IPS50 KTN Speakers webinar
The Rise of Digital Healthcare
Product Development
KTN Oct20
doctors in surgery

By Emma Dwyer for WarnerPatch


It’s not easy bringing a medical device to market, and the process can be surprisingly multifaceted and complex for new device developers. However, by implementing a strategic plan from the start, you can eliminate a lot of stress and uncertainty from your process, while increasing the chances for success in bringing your medical device to market.

Medical Device Innovation or an Answer to Clinical Unmet Need

By Emma Dwyer for WarnerPatch


Taking a solution for a clinical unmet need from a mere idea to a profitable medical device company is a long and complex process. Starting by identifying the right clinical unmet need is the first and maybe only crital step to do it right.

From Product Readiness Assessment to a Medical Device

The Rise of Digitalisation in Healthcare and Its Impact on Innovation 

By Emma Dwyer for WarnerPatch


The impact of digitalisation of health services has been profound in recent years and is expected to be even more so in the future. In light of this, it is important to evaluate the impact of these services.

Central Research Laboratory :
Accelerating hardware development the easy way

Patching up the decision making process for clinicians

By Anna Flockett from Startup Magazine


Arguably one of the most difficult industries for a startup to break into is health tech, but often it is new ideas and solutions in the medical sector that end up being the most revolutionary.

Here to make a difference

By Dr Melissa Berthelot, CEO at WarnerPatch

Fellow at the Entreprise Hub, The Royal Academy of Engineering


Featured by Barclays Eagle Labs, our founders discuss the path WarnerPatch took so far.

AI Advance Data Analytics & Augmented Decision Making for Clinicians

By Dr Melissa Berthelot, CEO at WarnerPatch

Fellow at the Entreprise Hub, The Royal Academy of Engineering


For the ISP50 Sensing in Precision Medicine and Digital Health, KTN, October 2020



"When designing medical device, we need to start by thinking of the clinical unmet need and how the solution can bring benefit to patients, clinicians and payers"

Here to make a difference


By Dr Melissa Berthelot, CEO at WarnerPatch

For Eagle Labs


WarnerPatch is a startup that develops the next generation of patient centric medical devices. By involving clinicians and patients the right clinical needs are identified and answered through an innovative product design process. 

The unprecedented challenges brought by COVID-19 forced us to think outside of the box. Two major questions came up: as any startup, how to remain on track and on budget ? But most importantly, as a medical device startup, how can we help?

We owe the UK and the world a solution, as pioneers in the development of the next generation of medical tools. Yes, it is hard, but the number of lives that can be positively impacted WORLDWIDE are worth weeks of sleep deprivation.


As such, we focused on what we do best: finding solutions to clinical needs. The major current limitation is the burden on clinical facilities and equipment. The spread of the virus is there and growing. We could not make new masks, ventilators or vaccines, but we could prevent the need to use them all together in the first place. “How ?” you are thinking.


Our core technology is advanced data analytics, we do AI, not because it’s trending but because our goal is to foresee what is not seen. Give information clinicians and patients do not have to give them a head start to tackle diseases. Eventually improving patient experience and outcome while reducing clinical staff and facilities burden. Especially in these times, when one additional bed and one additional ventilator can mean life or death.


The major struggle faced was our own mental limitation. That fear and uncertainty, this twilight zone that probably everyone faced as COVID-19 spread took over our lives and forced us into confinement. Once we overcame the initial inertia COVID-19 created, we managed to get momentum and rewrite the vision we had for our company. There are probably many other practical struggles to come, as Nelson Mandela said: “after climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb”, but we have the right shoes!

By pivoting our product and business model we have started new collaborations leading to stronger commitment and actions due to the urgency of the situation. People are eager to help.


My message to other startups or SME’s out there is do not be afraid, the first step is to imagine. Imagine your impact, as you are probably the only person in the world who can do it, with your energy, knowledge and care for others. Failure will happen as not everyone can imagine as big and far as you, and technology is not always on your side. Consistency in work ethic is crucial to ensure credibility and attract the right people to you.


One thing WarnerPatch is proud of is its collaborations (P4 Precision Medicine Accelerator powered by Barclays Eagle Labs, CRL accelerator and the Royal Academy of Engineering) and different evolving networks. Whichever market space a startup is evolving in, it needs to be surrounded by other startups and high quality standard people.


It’s from people for people with people.

Patching up the decision making process for clinicians


By Anna Flockett

For Startup Magazine


Arguably one of the most difficult industries for a startup to break into is health tech, but often it is new ideas and solutions in the medical sector that end up being the most revolutionary.

WarnerPatch is a very good example of this, as the founder, Dr Melissa Berthelot, came up with the idea which essentially consists of augmented decision making for clinicians by enabling remote continuous symptoms monitoring for high-risk chronic patients.

Speaking to Berthelot, as WarnerPatch is another startup part of the latest CRL accelerator programme, sponsored by Mouser Electronics, she explained to me her journey and the idea behind the medical hardware devices.

“The idea behind the product is to give more information on the patients symptoms to the clinicians, and for them to be able to give better care and treatment,” she explained.


Targeting peripheral vascular diseases for which the diabetic patients group is prominent, WarnerPatch has developed connected medical devices to improve the remote monitoring of symptoms. Berthelot explained: “This is probably one of the biggest expense to the NHS, as there is a lot of patients going through lengthy and expensive treatments, and often clinicians don’t get the information on the patient so are navigating through the process blind. This could really shorten the treatment cycle.”

Having studied electronic engineering, Berthelot went on to do a PhD, she said: “I met many clinicians, I got to know how they work and saw that there was a gap in their information, more often than you would think. Mainly it is because of the huge number of patients which they have to follow guidelines for, so I decided I wanted to augment what was already there.”


WarnerPatch uses AI and advanced data analytics to ensure the clinicians have a much more detailed overview of symptoms, which can then augment the decision making process “This is what is going to make a massive difference to the clinicians, as they will be able to work with preventative care,” Berthelot explained.


The sensor attaches to a patch, which is then changed with every patient, but it is the same piece of hardware which essentially does the monitoring and gathers the data. It then connects to an app which contains all the software. “Patients can wear it remotely, even at home, for example where it can monitor patients for a longer period of time. It monitors the progression of healing, and can then tell if the treatment is working or if perhaps a different type of treatment is needed.”


Describing the product as being innovative, Berthelot said it was very new in this industry. “Its major competitor is human behaviour, and trying to evolve beyond that. At the moment we have nurses going into patient's homes up to twice a day to change dressings. With this technology, yes nurses will still have to go and visit, but a lot less, which will give the industry more space and room to work with more patients.”


It uses a technique called optical tomography, which is combined with a secret method the founder has developed and patented. Aligned with the AI of course, which brings in the prediction aspect.

WarnerPatch team joined the CRL cohort as they needed help on their hardware development, Berthelot explained: “The area of product development we were lacking became obvious early on and when discussing usability with patients. It is really hard to get into a programme like this, so it was a great surprise to be accepted.”


WarnerPatch is also involved in the P4 Precision Medicine Accelerator, run by UCL and Eagle Labs, to create an ecosystem of startups delivering precision medicine. Berthelot commented: “That was really helpful in understanding the restrictions with the regulations, and what it’s like to be a startup in the medical sector. We have been lucky to work with them at such an early stage, it helped to shape our message.”


Prototypes and testing has been done on the first version of the product. Berthelot said: “The results were encouraging, it helped to push things forward and helped us create such a developed product.”


Berthelot is also a part of the Enterprise Hub of the Royal Academy of Engineering, which brings engineers from across the industry together, she said: “This has been imperative in giving me the environment to be a great entrepreneur. This group is always eager to help make WarnerPatch grow.”


The Rise of Digitalisation in Healthcare and its Impact on Innovation


By Emma Dwyer

For WarnerPatch


The impact of digitalisation of health services has been profound in recent years and is expected to be even more so in the future. In light of this, it is important to evaluate the impact of these services.

The impact of digitalisation of health services has been profound in recent years and is expected to be even more so in the future. In light of this, it is important to evaluate the impact of these services. Deciding which emerging technologies are worth investing in and getting your team on board with change is often the hardest part. Adapting to the digital era requires a shift towards a flexible and risk-taking mindset. It means letting go of outdated business processes and trusting that disruption will yield big results.[1]


Telemedicine, (AI)-enabled medical devices, and blockchain electronic health records are just a few solid examples of digital transformation in healthcare which are completely reshaping how we interact with health professionals. It is also improving collaboration among medical professionals by making changes in data sharing and how decisions are made about our treatment plans and health outcomes. Thanks to technology, patients get better treatment with virtual reality tools, wearable medical devices, telehealth, and 5G mobile technology.[2]


Innovation is key and the main goal is to streamline physicians’ work, optimising systems, improving patient outcomes, reducing human error, and lowering costs through web and mobile experiences. [3]

Regarding mobile experiences, you may be wondering what the driver is behind the sudden increase in on-demand healthcare, and simply put, people become far more mobile in the past decade. A study from Statista found that that more than 50% of all web browsing in the world occurs on mobile devices.[4] This coupled with the fact there are now 4 billion people using online web services, it is easy to understand how this has paved the way to digitalisation of our healthcare today. The main reasons why patients are going online to seek out medical information is mainly for researching doctors, researching hospitals and other medical facilities and also to book medical appointments.


Virtual reality is another concept that was born out of the digitalisation of healthcare. A myriad of digital applications have been developed in the realms of VR and it has profoundly changed the ways patients are being treated. Doctors and residents are using virtual-reality simulations to hone their skills or to plan complicated surgeries. Some VR headsets also motivate wearers to exercise and help children with autism learn how to navigate the world. VR is a powerful communication channel that allows for better sense of your patients’ needs and allows medical staff to virtually engage with patients through products and services available.


Another emerging trend in the sphere of digital healthcare is accessing patient information through wearable medical devices. In the digital era, patients no longer have to wait to seek medical assistance when something goes wrong, there can be arrangements made for ongoing remote monitoring at home through wearable medical devices. Remote monitoring will also free up time for medical staff to provide care for other patients. As a result, healthcare companies are being proactive by investing in wearable technology devices that can provide up-to-date monitoring of high-risk patients to determine the likelihood of a major health event. According to a recent report, the wearable medical device market is expected to reach more than $27 million by 2023, a spectacular jump from almost $8 million in 2017.[5]


The evaluation of digital health services is an important topic in 2020. Given the expected growth in digital health solutions, as well as the impact this will have on future health care delivery. The need for development of improved methods for evaluating the contribution of digital health services to patients, care providers and health systems is of remains high.




REFERENCES

[1] Pita Barros, P., Bourek, A., Brower, W., Lethonen, L. and Barry, M. (2019). ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF HEALTH SERVICES Expert Panel on effective ways of investing in Health (EXPH). [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/health/sites/health/files/expert_panel/docs/022_digitaltransformation_en.pdf [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

[2] A Journey Towards Smart Health the Impact of Digitalization on Patient Experience. (2018). [online] Deloitte. Available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/lu/Documents/life-sciences-health-care/lu_journey-smart-health-digitalisation.pdf [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

[3] DMN3. (2018). 5 Healthcare Marketing Trends to Watch in 2017. [online] Available at: https://www.dmn3.com/dmn3-blog/5-healthcare-marketing-trends-you-should-know-about/ [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

[4] Clement, J. (2020). Mobile percentage of website traffic 2019 | Statista. [online] Statista. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/277125/share-of-website-traffic-coming-from-mobile-devices/ [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

[5] London, T. and Dash, P. (2016). Health systems: Improving and sustaining quality through digital transformation. [online] McKinsey & Company. Available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/mckinsey-digital/our-insights/health-systems-improving-and-sustaining-quality-through-digital-transformation [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].


From Product Readiness Assessment to a Medical Device


By Emma Dwyer

For WarnerPatch


It’s not easy bringing a medical device to market, and the process can be surprisingly multifaceted and complex for new device developers. However, by implementing a strategic plan from the start, you can eliminate a lot of stress and uncertainty from your process, while increasing the chances for success in bringing your medical device to market.

Transitioning from product development and design to the manufacturing phase of a project can have many challenges. Engineers, scientists, and marketing personnel often tend to be overly optimistic as to their ability to meet performance requirements that go beyond state-of-the-art.  Because of this, they tend to define requirements based on technologies that are not mature enough to be included in a product’s development plans.  This often causes cost and schedule overruns due to the need to fix problems later in development or failure of the system or product to meet stakeholder expectations.[1]


In order to tackle this issue, Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) were developed by NASA to assess the risks of basing a projects success on a given technology. Within the framework there are nine levels of maturity, as a general guideline, a project should not base success on a technology that is not at least TRL 3 (analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof-of-concept) at the start, and should be at TRL 6 (system/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant end-to-end environment) by the Preliminary Design Review (PDR). In the TRL model, technology maturity increases while risk decreases as we progress through each level. The higher the level of readiness of critical technologies when incorporated into a product, the greater the probability for a successful outcome.[2]


Another vital element to carry a prototype through the product readiness stage is market research, this is where the human factor is incorporated and this not an insignificant thing. Having a great idea for a product isn’t enough to guarantee its success in the market. You’ll first need to make sure there is in fact a market for your product.[3] Some critical questions may include: will the device fulfil an unmet need?; who would buy this device and where can I sell it?; what are the competitive technologies and devices currently available and what sets my product apart from the rest? It is important to remember that different countries and regions will pay different prices for the same product. The size of your target market is important for a number of reasons. If a target market is too small, you will want to determine early on that it’s not worth pursuing. Market size will also likely dictate how much capital you can raise, if you decide to go that route. While it’s possible to determine the size of certain individual markets based on existing data, international markets are more difficult to gauge.[4]


As with any business venture, a team of experts and capital are required to bring a vision to life. To successfully bring your product to market, you will need to consider costs associated with manufacturing equipment, testing, certifications with notified bodies, product registrations, clinical trial management, and many other items. Capital can be obtained from many sources, including angel investors, venture capitalists, other companies, and grants. Having a solid, exhaustive plan will go a long way to relieve the concerns of potential investors.[5]


It’s not easy bringing a medical device to market, and the process can be surprisingly multifaceted and complex for new device developers. However, by implementing a strategic plan from the start, you can eliminate a lot of stress and uncertainty from your process, while increasing the chances for success in bringing your medical device to market.

 



REFERENCES

[1] Richards, S. (2014). Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Tool -Are You Ready for Production? [online] www.kmcsystems.com. Available at: http://www.kmcsystems.com/blog/manufacturing-readiness-assessment-tool-are-you-ready-for-production [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

[2] Wheatcraft, L. (2015). Technology Readiness Levels applied to Medical Device Development. [online] reqexperts.com. Available at: https://reqexperts.com/2015/11/30/technology-readiness-levels-applied-to-medical-device-development/ [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

[3] Wheatcraft, L. (2015b). Using Technology Readiness Levels to Manage Risk. [online] reqexperts.com. Available at: https://reqexperts.com/2015/10/30/using-technology-readiness-levels-to-manage-risk/ [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

[4] Fournier, D. (2017). Is Your Medical Device Ready? – Manufacturing Readiness. [online] Coghlin Companies. Available at: https://www.coghlincompanies.com/medical-device-ready-manufacturing-readiness/ [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

[5] Tempo. (2020). Understanding Technology Readiness Level for Medical Devices Development. [online] Available at: https://www.tempoautomation.com/blog/understanding-technology-readiness-level-for-medical-devices-development/ [Accessed 18 Oct. 2020].

AI Advance Data Analytics & Augmented Decision Making for Clinicians

By Dr Melissa Berthelot, CEO at WarnerPatch

For the ISP50, KTN


"When designing medical device, we need to start by thinking of the clinical unmet need and how the solution can bring benefit to patients, clinicians and payers"

KTN Oct20
KTN Oct20
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First, I wanted to explain in more details the title, which is “AI Advanced Data Analytics and augmented decision making for clinicians”.
Dividing it in different aspects, the first one being AI. Maybe some people in the room are thinking "why are we talking about AI? It's actually machine learning", and fine. I’m focusing on advanced data analytics since I'm not really here to discuss these different aspects in particular, so let's just call these advanced data analytics.
The other aspect tha
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This is the outline of the talk.
Firstly, as an introduction, I wanted to go back into some of the basis medical device and in vitro diagnosis development, starting from the identification of an unmet clinical need, the solution development and finally the research or commercialisation prospect,

The second chapter is about the solution and data, essentially discussing what happens once the solution is developed in terms of data and the sensing mechanisms being used to obtain the data. In part
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Here is my definition of an unmet clinical need I come up with and please feel free to have a check online as it is widely available online as well.
An unmet clinical need is a significant problem or limitation that is faced pretty much every day by a significantly large group of patients and or patients. And the key aspect is that the existing solutions are not satisfying
A good example is during the lockdown due to social distancing, many existing solutions for clinical assessments were not s
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It is important to understand that an unmet clinical need has different aspects and different consequences.
It can be around operational management of staff, patient equipment or even the facility, but also have financial and societal impact. Either way, these are eventually felt back into the medical aspect of the clinical unmet need. In particular, it can impact the test and clinical assessment of the patient, the disease diagnosis and treatment. And more importantly, how this repeats over tim
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The solution that is developed not only needs to answer that unmet clinical need, it also needs to be validated.
Technically, on one hand, but also with an initial clinical proof of concept. That's very important because it's quite different from having a working prototype in a lab than in real life, or a real clinical environment. Finally, it also neds to be validated with PPIE (patient and public involvement and engagement). That's again very important because that relates to patient and produ
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The last question is about:, Is it a solution that is better suited for research or commercialisation?
One key aspect that is often overlooked, is the regulatory pathway for an in vitro diagnostic or medical device, and not only, it’s needs to be certified under CE marking or equivalent. It's also very important to demonstrate that he has real life clinical benefit, which can take decades in some instances.
And so not only that, it also needs to be validated with market analysis.
If you can't c
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Now, the second part that we're about to talk about was about solution and data.
So, key questions that should be asked are what type of data we collect, how to collect this data and what to do once we have this data.
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In terms of what type of data to collect, there are different types of data. it could be anthropometrics, retrospective, prospective data, it could be done real time basis, or discrete assessments or even drogue dosage for example,
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How to collect data, they can be soft, or hard data. So what I mean by that is, for example, questionnaires or more, you know, mathematically accurate measurements.
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What is really important is what to do once the data is collected.
The advanced analytics that can be performed for the mathematical analysis and calculation.
But there's also semantic analysis on this soft acquire data, as I mentioned, but either way, the goal is to deduce something useful for the clinical benefit.
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Now to acquire data, you need a sensing technology. And so, I had a thought and in my experience in terms of sensing technologies, either it's a chemical, biological sensing technology, so it looks at reaction, and what is the outcome as this reaction. As an example, a drug with chemicals, it reacts with a bacteria, and either the output of the bacteria is destroyed, or the bacteria itself is killed.

And the other is about physical sensing, which can be kinetic, so with movements, or it can be
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The novel and emerging sensing technologies. In my opinion, the novelty or innovation is not really what is sensed but how that data acquired is sensed. And so we seen examples with implantable and micro fluidics, which are new sensing or emerging sensing technologies.
More importantly, one step ahead, is what is done with these data being sensed. And so I think that, as I mentioned earlier, either it could be semantic or mathematical analysis. More and more, we're looking at the combination of
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The last chapter is about the advanced data analytics: is advanced analytics, the right analytic method? And to answer this we need to look at the actual types of outcomes generated by AI or advanced analytics?

So usually, it's either binary answers, so yes, no.
It could be a classified result. For example, what type of diseases within a range of diseases and what is the risk level of that disease.
It could help in extrapolating some missing data.
And also within same trend, really predict s
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Then we can know if the data is adequate for obtaining a good data analytics outcome, and then, if this outcome can be used for the augmented decision outcome toward clinical benefit.
That’s essentially how to turn the use of AI for the clinical decision making process
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The ultimate goal is to use the clinical decision making process for providing clinical benefit.
I would like to take the example of the umbrella in the rain or the sun. So, let's say that, the forecast says it is going to rain, and, you have an umbrella: you're pretty happy about yourself, you'll be dry.
In the case the forecast is wrong and it’s sunny, but you still got your umbrella: you're a bit bothered by having to carry it, but it's fine. it could have been worse.
And then you don't have
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In particular to AI and its integration within the clinical decision making process, the regulation is still being developed to answer key unknows as to:
1. To what extend can we trust the black box aspect of AI to function with high repetitivity and sensitivity
2. What is the minimum amount of data that is mathematically enough to consider the sensitivity to be high enough
3. How the sensitivity is affected by the amount of data being processed.
4. Where in the clinical pathway can AI use can b
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I wanted to go back really into that loop that I really tried to convey throughout the presentation.
Everything is always starting with patients. And always ends with patients. The solution, being developed should be around patient needs, and clinical setting needs.
With a solution designed according to the patient benefit, then the data being sensed could potentially being used for AI because the required output of AI to produce a meaningful results that clinicians can be use within their deci

Medical Device Innovation or an Answer to an Unmet Clinical Need


By Emma Dwyer

For WarnerPatch


Taking a solution for a clinical unmet need from a mere idea to a profitable medical device company is a long and complex process. Starting by identifying the right clinical unmet need is the first and maybe only crital step to do it right.

There are an array of challenges that lie ahead for medical device innovation, such as identifying areas of clinical medicine in which there are significant unmet needs. The goal of any innovation in medicine is to improve patient care. Exponential growth in technology has led to the unprecedented growth of medical technology over the last 50 years. Clinician-scientists work to understand the complexity of the innovation process, from concept to product release, when developing new clinical solutions.[1]


Taking a solution for a clinical unmet need from a mere idea to a profitable medical device company is a long and complex process. After developing a prototype solution, the inventor must quickly file a patent to protect his or her intellectual property. After the patent is secured, the first major business decision arrives: should the inventor sell the patent or maintain ownership? If the inventor decides to maintain ownership, he or she will face a series of hurdles from obtaining additional funding to device development, and ultimately, commercialisation and marketing of the product. Although this process is daunting at first glance, and physicians certainly face unique challenges in this endeavour, clinicians are uniquely and strategically positioned to identify clinical unmet needs and, therefore, have the ability to fundamentally transform the way we patients are treated.[2]


The initial steps in starting a successful medical device company or medical application revolves around the “3 Is” process (identification, invention, implementation). This is a long process but to give a summary, a commercial venture begins with the identification of an unmet clinical need. Physicians, more than potentially any other group of professionals, can provide important expertise at this stage due to their first-hand experience with the need as well as their understanding of the pathophysiology underlying and current treatment methodologies available for the need. Once identified, the unmet clinical need becomes the basis of a solution that will ultimately be commercialised. However, this solution cannot be invented by the physician alone and requires a team approach which is imperative for success. If the physician identifies an unmet need that may be solved by a medical device, for example, he or she might enlist an engineer with the skills to design such a device, from prototyping through final aspects of development[3] Finally, the team may incorporate a business expert to assist with implementation of the device into the market, including considerations regarding intellectual property, credible reimbursement options, and investment strategies for further research and development (R&D) and commercialisation efforts.[4]


Due to the a physician’s identification of the clinical unmet need and mastery of the clinical environment, physicians are uniquely positioned to develop a company based on their novel solution to this need. Although all of the hurdles discussed previously are presented to any leader of a start-up company, physicians face a host of additional, unique challenges when starting a company due to a variety of factors, including educational background, a reframing of expectations compared with clinical practice, etc. This mean a new learning mentality will be required in order to grow a business.


REFERENCES:

[1] Beyar, R. (2015). The Long and Winding Road to Innovation. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal, [online] 6(3). Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524403/ [Accessed 25 Oct. 2020].


[2] D’Souza, R. (2018). A structured process to identify unmet needs for Medical Device. [online] www.onjourn.org. Available at: https://www.onjourn.org/open-access-article/a-structured-process-to-identify-unmet-needs-for-medical-device-innovation-in-obstetrics-and-gynaecology-100009.html [Accessed 25 Oct. 2020].


[3] Van Norman, G.A. and Eisenkot, R. (2017). Technology Transfer: From the Research Bench to Commercialization. JACC: Basic to Translational Science, 2(1), pp.85–97.


[4]Doug, R. (2016). Targeting Unmet Medical Needs From The Ground Up: A Tutorial. [online] www.meddeviceonline.com. Available at: https://www.meddeviceonline.com/doc/targeting-unmet-medical-needs-from-the-ground-up-a-tutorial-0001 [Accessed 25 Oct. 2020].